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FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

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FOUNDATION ENGINEERING

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MODULETOPIC COVEREDPDF LINK
CHAPTER 1: Soil Exploration1.1 Introduction
1.2 Boring of Holes
1.2.1 Auger Method
1.2.1.1 Hand Operated Augers
1.2.1.2 Power Driven Augers
1.2.1.3 Wash Boring
1.2.1.4 Rotary Drilling
1.2.1.5 Coring Bits
1.3 Sampling of soils
1.4 Disturbed Samples
1.4.1 Open Drive Sampler
1.5 Standard Penetration Test (SPT)
1.5.1 Drill Rod, Sampler and Borehole Corrections
1.5.2 Correction Factor for Overburden Pressure in Granular Soils
1.5.3Hammer Efficiency Correction
1.6 Cone Penetration Test (CPT)
1.7 Operation of Penetrometer
1.8 Correlation between SPT and CPT
1.9 Geophysical Exploration
1.9.1 Seismic Refraction Method
1.9.2 Electrical Resistivity Method
Wenner Method
1.10 Soil Report
1.11 Borehole Log
CLICK HERE
CHAPTER 2: Shallow Foundations2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Requirements of a Good Foundation
2.1.2 Basic Definitions:
2.1.3 Design Loading and General Philosophy (Working Stress Approach)
2.2 Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Axially Loaded Continuous Footing
2.2.1 Determination of Ultimate Bearing Capacity
2.2.1.1 Prandtl’s Analysis
Assumptions made in Prandtl’s Analysis
The Limitations of Prandtl’s Analysis are
2.2.1.2 Terzaghi’s Analysis
Assumptions made in Terzaghi’s Analysis
Limitations in Terzaghi’s analysis
Terzaghi’s Bearing Capacity Factors
Prediction of the Type of Failure Condition
2.2.1.2a Effect of Shape on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Footing
2.2.1.2b Effect of Size on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Footing
2.2.1.2c Effect of Water Table on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Footing
2.2.1.2d Effect of Foundation Depth on Bearing Capacity
2.2.1.3 Meyerhof’s Analysis
2.2.1.3.1 Brief Comparison between Meyerhof’s Analysis and Terzaghi’s Analysis
2.2.1.4 Hansen’s Analysis
2.2.1.6 Upper Bound Solutions to the Bearing Capacity of a Footing on Saturated Clay
2.2.1.7 The Standard Penetration Test
2.3 Bearing capacity of footings on Layered Soils
2.4 Eccentric and Inclined loading
2.4.1 Eccentric Loading
2.4.1.1 Contact Pressure Distribution
2.4.1.2 Concept of Useful Width
2.4.2 Inclined Loading
2.4.3 Combined Eccentric and Inclined Loading
2.4.4 Settlement under Eccentric and Inclined Loading
2.5 Bearing Capacity of Footings on Slopes
2.6 Foundation Settlement
2.6.1 Calculation of Settlement: General comments
2.6.2 Permissible Settlement
2.6.3 Shallow Foundations on Clay: Settlement
2.6.4 Components of Total Settlement
2.6.5 Seat of Settlement
2.6.6 Settlement of Foundations on Cohesionless Soils
2.6.7 Settlement of Foundations on Saturated Cohesive Soil
2.8 Design of Axially Loaded Shallow Foundations on Sand
2.9 Types of Bearing Capacity Failure
CLICK HERE
CHAPTER 3: COMBINED FOOTING AND RAFT FOUNDATION3.1 INTRODUCTION
3.2 MAT FOUNDATION IN SAND
3.3 MAT FOUNDATION IN CLAY
3.4 RIGID AND ELASTIC FOUNDATION
3.5 SAFE BEARING PRESSURES FOR MAT FOUNDATIONS ON SAND AND CLAY
3.5.1 Mats on Sand
3.5.2 Mats on Clay
3.6 ECCENTRIC LOADING
3.6.1 PROPORTIONING OF CANTILEVER FOOTING
3.7 DESIGN OF COMBINED FOOTINGS BY RIGID METHOD (CONVENTIONAL METHOD)
3.8 DESIGN OF COMBINED FOOTINGS
3.9 DESIGN OF MAT FOUNDATION BY RIGID METHOD
3.10 DESIGN OF COMBINED FOOTINGS BY ELASTIC LINE METHOD
3.11 DESIGN OF MAT FOUNDATIONS BY ELASTIC PLATE METHOD
3.12 FLOATING FOUNDATION
3.12.1 General Consideration
3.12.2 Problems to be Considered in the Design of a Floating Foundation
3.13 APPROXIMATE DESIGN OF RAFT FOUNDATIONS
3.14 RECTANGULAR COMBINED FOOTINGS
CLICK HERE
CHAPTER 4: EARTH PRESSURE4.1 INTRODUCTION
4.2 EARTH PRESSURE AT REST
4.3 RANKINE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE STATES OF PLASTIC EQUILIBRIUM
4.3.1 Active Earth Pressure of Cohesionless Soil by Rankine’s Theory
Case 1: Dry or moist backfill with no surcharge
Case 2: Backfill with surcharge
Case 3: Fully submerged backfill
Case 4: Partially submerged backfill
Case 5: Partially submerged backfill taking into account reduction in ∅ on submergence
Case 6: Backfill with sloping surface
Case 7: Wall with inclined back and backfill with horizontal surface
Case 8: Wall with inclined back and backfill with sloping surface
4.3.2 Active Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil by Extension of Rankine’s Theory
4.3.3 Passive Earth Pressure of Cohesionless Soil – by Method Based on Rankine’s Theory
4.3.4 Passive Earth Pressure of Cohesive Soil‐ by Method Based on Rankine’s Theory
4.4 COULOMB’S WEDGE THEORY
4.5 CONDITION FOR MAXIMUM PRESSURE FROM SLIDING WEDGE
4.6 REBHANN’S GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE OF COHESIONLESS SOIL
4.6.1 Analytical Expression for Coulomb’s Ka and hence Pa
4.7 CULMANN’S GRAPHICAL METHOD FOR ACTIVE EARTH PRESSURE OF COHESIONLESS SOIL
4.8 Design of Gravity Retaining Wall
CLICK HERE
CHAPTER 5: SHEET PILE WALL5.1 INTRODUCTION
5.2 CANTILEVER SHEET PILE WALL
Case 1: Cantilever sheet pile embedded in granular soil.
Case 2: Cantilever sheet pile wall embedded in cohesive soil.
5.3 ANCHORED BULKHEAD
5.3.1 Free‐Earth Support Method
Case 1: Anchored bulkhead driven into granular soil.
Case 2:Anchored bulkhead embedded in cohesive soil
5.3.2 Fixed Earth Support Method
5.4 Lateral Earth Pressures on Braced Sheeting
CLICK HERE
CHAPTER 6: BRACED CUTS6.1GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS INTRODUCTION
6.2LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONON BRACED‐CUTS
6.2.1 Apparent Pressure Diagrams
6.2.2 Deep Cuts in Sand
6.2.3 Cuts in Saturated Clay
6.2.4 Cuts in Stratified Soils
6.3 STABILITY OF BRACED CUTS IN SATURATED CLAY
6.3.1 Heaving in Clay Soil
Case 1: Formation of Full Plastic Failure Zone Below the Bottom of Cut
Case 2: When the formation of Full Plastic Zone is restricted by the presence of hard layer
6.4 DESIGN OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS
6.4.1 Struts
6.4.2 Sheet piles
6.4.3Wales
CLICK HERE
CHAPTER 7: PILE FOUNDATION7.1 INTRODUCTION
Classification based on materials or composition
Classification based on the function
Classification based on method of installation
7.3 LOAD TRANSFER MECHANISM
7.4 LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF PILES
7.4.1 Static Formulae
7.4.2 Dynamic Formulae
7.4.2.2 Hiley’s Modification of Wellington’s formula
7.4.3 Load Carrying Capacity from Penetration Test Data
7.4.4 Load Tests on Piles
Procedure for pile load test
Allowable load from single pile load test data
7.5 NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION
7.6 UNDER‐REAMED PILES
7.6.1 Procedure for Construction of Under‐Reamed Piles
7.7 GROUP ACTION
7.7.1 Ultimate Load Carrying Capacity for the Pile Group
7.7.2 Efficiency of a Pile Group
7.7.3 Settlement of Pile Groups
7.7.4 Multi‐Layered Deposits
7.8 ECCENTRIC AND INCLINED LOADS ON PILE GROUPS
7.9 LATERALLY LOADED PILES
7.10 Piles on a Rocky Bed
CLICK HERE
CHAPTER 8: DRILLED PIERS AND CAISSONS8.1 INTRODUCTION
8.2 TYPES OF DRILLED PIERS
8.3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF DRILLED PIER FOUNDATIONS
8.3.1 Advantages
8.3.2 Disadvantages
8.4 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
8.5 LOAD TRANSFER MECHANISM
8.6 VERTICAL BEARING CAPACITY OF DRILLED PIERS
8.7 EFFECTIVE LENGTH FOR COMPUTING SIDE RESISTANCE IN COHESIVE SOIL
8.8 BEARING CAPACITY EQUATION FOR THE BASE RESISTANCE
8.9 BEARING CAPACITY EQUATIONS FOR THE BASE IN COHESIVE SOIL
8.10 BEARING CAPACITY EQUATION FOR THE BASE IN GRANULAR SOIL
8.11 BEARING CAPACITY EQUATIONS FOR THE BASE IN COHESIVE IGM OR ROCK (O’NEILL AND REESE, 1999)
8.12 ESTIMATION OF SETTLEMENTS OF DRILLED PIERS AT WORKING LOADS
8.12.1 Normalized Load‐Transfer Methods
8.13 LATERAL BEARING CAPACITY OF DRILLED PIERS
8.13.1 Characteristic Load Method (Duncan et al., 1994)
8.14 TYPES OF CAISSONS
8.15 DIFFERENT SHAPES OF WELL
8.15.1 Construction of Well Foundation
8.1.2 Forces Acting on a Well Foundation
8.15.3 Depth of Well Foundation and Bearing Capacity
8.16 ANALYSIS OF WELL FOUNDATION
8.16.1 Design of well cap
8.16.2 Design of Well Steining
8.16.3 Design of Well Curb and Cutting Edge
8.16.4 Design of Curb for Sinking
8.16.5 Design of Curb Resting on the Bottom Plug
CLICK HERE
CHAPTER 9: MACHINE FOUNDATIONS9.1 INTRODUCTION
9.2 BASIC DEFINITIONS
9.3 SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
9.4 FUNDAMENTALS OF VIBRATION
9.5 MODES OF VIBRATION
9.6 FREE VIBRATIONS AND FORCED VIBRATIONS
9.6.1 Resonance
9.7 DAMPING
9.7.1 Negative Damping
9.7.2 Free Vibration with Damping
9.7.3 Forced Vibration without Damping
9.7.4 Free Vibrations with Damping
9.7.5 Forced Vibration with Damping
9.8 CONSTANT FORCE—AMPLITUDE EXCITATION
9.9 QUADRATIC EXCITATION
9.10 MACHINE FOUNDATIONS—SPECIAL FEATURES
9.10.1 Types of Machines and Machine Foundations
9.10.2 General Criteria for Design of Machine Foundations
9.10.3 Design Approach for Machine Foundation
9.10.4 Vibration Analysis of a Machine Foundation
9.11 ELASTIC HALF SPACE THEORY
9.12 MASS‐SPRING‐DASHPOT MODEL
9.13 FOUNDATIONS FOR RECIPROCATING MACHINES
9.13.1 Design Criteria
9.13.2 Calculation of Unbalanced Inertial Forces
9.14 FOUNDATIONS FOR IMPACT MACHINES
9.14.1 Special Considerations
9.14.2 Design Data
9.14.3 Elastic Pad under the Anvil
9.14.4 Velocity of Anvil
9.14.5 Velocity of Tup and Anvil after Impact
9.14.6 Dynamic Analysis of Foundation for Impact Machines
9.15 DESIGN CRITERIA
9.15.1 Design Approach
9.15.2 Barkan’s Empirical Procedure
9.15.3 Weight of Foundation
9.15.4 Base Area of the Foundation Block
9.15.5 Minimum Thickness of Foundation
9.16 VIBRATION ISOLATION
9.16.1 Types of Isolation‐Transmissibility
9.16.2 Methods of Isolation
9.16.3 Properties of Isolating Materials
9.17 CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS OF MACHINE FOUNDATIONS
9.17.1 Concrete
9.17.2 Reinforcement
9.17.3 Expansion Joints
9.17.4 Connecting Elements
9.17.5 Spring Absorbers
9.18 Provision for Tuning
CLICK HERE
CHAPTER 10: GEOTEXTILES REINFORCED EARTH AND GROUND ANCHORS10.1 INTRODUCTION
10.1.1 Geotextiles
10.1.2 Geogrids
10.1.3 Geonets
10.1.4 Geocomposites
10.1.5 Geomembranes
10.1.6 Geosynthetic Clay Liners
10.1.7 Geofoam
10.1.8 Geopipe
10.1.9 Turf Reinforcement Mats
10.1.10 Geocell
10.2 GEOTEXTILES
10.2.1 Geotextiles as Separators
10.2.2 Geotextiles as Reinforcement
10.2.3 Geotextiles in Filtration and Drainage
10.3 REINFORCED EARTH AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
10.4 BACKFILL AND REINFORCING MATERIALS
10.4.1 Backfill
10.4.2 Reinforcing Material
10.5 GEOGRID
10.6 CONSTRUCTION DETAILS
10.6.1 Design Consideration for a Reinforced Earth Wall
10.6.2 Design Method
10.6.2.1 Pressure due to Surcharge (a) of Limited Width, and (b) Uniformly Distributed
10.6.2.2 Vertical Pressure
10.6.2.3 Reinforcement and Distribution
10.6.2.4 Length of Reinforcement
10.6.2.5 Strip tensile Force at any Depth z
10.6.2.6 Frictional Resistance
10.6.2.7 Sectional Area of Metal Strips
10.6.2.8 Spacing of Geotextile layers
10.6.2.9 Frictional Resistance
10.7 DESIGN WITH GEOGRID LAYERS
10.8 EXTERNAL STABILITY
10.9 REINFORCED SOIL BEDS
10.9 DESIGN OF GEOCELL FOUNDATIONS
CLICK HERE

PILE FOUNDATION

PILE FOUNDATION LECTURE [NPTEL]PDF LINKS
1.2 INTRODUCTION
1.3 TYPES OF PILES AND THEIR STRUCTURAL
CHARACTERISTICS
 Steel Piles
 Concrete Piles
 Cased Pile
 Uncased Pile
 Timber Piles
 Composite Piles
 Comparison of Pile Types
1.4ESTIMATING PILE LENGTH
 Point Bearing Piles
 Friction Piles
 Compaction Piles
1.5 INSTALLATION OF PILES
CLICK HERE
1.1 LOAD TRANSFER MECHANISM
1.2 EQUATIONS FOR ESTIMATING PILE CAPACITY
 Point Bearing Capacity, 𝑸𝒑
 Frictional Resistance, 𝑸𝒔
1.3 MEYERHOF’S METHODS ESTIMATION OF 𝑸𝒑
 Sand
 Clay (𝝓 = 𝟎 𝐜ondition)
1.4 VESIC’S METHOD-ESTIMATION OF 𝑸𝒑
1.5 JANBU’S METHOD-ESTIMATION OF 𝑸𝒑
1.6 COYLE AND CASTELLO’S METHOD-ESTIMATION OF 𝑸𝒑 IN
SAND
1.7 FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE (𝑸𝒔) IN SAND
CLICK HERE
1.1FRICTIONAL (SKIN) RESISTANCE IN CLAY
1.2POINT BEARING CAPACITY OF PILES RESTING ON ROCK
1.3PILE LOAD TESTS
CLICK HERE
1.1 COMPARISON OF THEORY WITH FIELD LOAD TEST
RESULTS
1.2 SETTLEMENT OF PILES
1.3 PULLOUT RESISTANCE OF PILES
 Piles in Clay
 Piles in Sand
1.4 LATERALLY LOADED PILES
 Elastic Solution
 Ultimate Load Analysis-Brom’s Method
 Ultimate Load Analysis-Meyerhof’s Method
 Piles in Sand
CLICK HERE
1.1 PILE-DRIVING FORMULAS
1.2 NEGATIVE SKIN FRICTION
 Clay Fill over Granular Soil
 Granular Soil Fill over Clay
1.3 GROUP PILES
1.4 GROUP EFFICIENCY
CLICK HERE
1.1 ULTIMATE CAPACITY OF GROUP
1.2 PILES IN SATURATED CLAY
1.3 PILES IN ROCK
1.4 CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT OF GROUP PILES
1.5 ELASTIC SETTLEMENT OF GROUP PILES
1.6 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF GROUP PILES
CLICK HERE

DRILLED-SHAFT AND CAISSON FOUNDATIONS & WELL FOUNDATION

TOPICPDF LINK
1.1 CAISSONS
1.2 TYPES OF CAISSONS
1.3 THICKNESS OF CONCRETE SEAL IN OPEN CAISSONS
1.4 EXAMPLES & SOLUTIONS
 Check for Perimeter Shear
 Check Against Buoyancy
CLICK HERE
WELL FOUNDATIONCLICK HERE

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